TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Principles 1-7: a list of references associated with each principle.

  • Contexts 1-6: a list of references for each context/case study.

  • Environmental Issues: references used for the overview of typical environmental issues in the livestock sector.

 

 

PRINCIPLES 1-7

 

Principle 1: Contribute to a sustainable food future.

 

Roos, E., Bojana, B., Smith, E., Patel, M., Little, D., & Garnett, T. 2017. “Greedy or needy? Land use and climate impacts of food in 2050 under different livestock futures.” Global Environmental Change 47: 1–12.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.09.001
Bajželj, B., Richards, K.S., Allwood, J.M., Smith, P., Dennis, J.S., Curmi, E., & Gilligan, C.A. 2014. “Importance of food-demand management for climate mitigation.” Nature Climate Change 4 (10): 924–929. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2353.
Davis, K.F., Gephart, J.A., Emery, K.A., et al. 2016. “Meeting future food demand with current agricultural resources.” Global Environmental Change 39: 125–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.004.
Erb, K.-H., Lauk, C., Kastner, T., Mayer, A., Theurl, M.C. & Haberl, H. 2016. “Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation.” Nature Communications 7: 11382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11382.
Godfray, H.C.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., et al. 2010. “Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people.” Science 327 (5967): 812–818. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1185383.
Popp, A., Lotze-Campen, H. & Bodirsky, B. 2010. “Food consumption, diet shifts and associated non-CO2 greenhouse gases from agricultural production.” Global Environmental Change 20 (3): 451–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.02.001.
Tilman, D. & Clark, M. 2014. “Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health.” Nature 515 (7528): 518–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13959.
Poore, J., & Nemecek, T. 2018. “Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers.” Science 360 (6392): 987–992. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaq0216.
Springmann, M., Clark, M., Mason-D’Croz, D., Wiebe, K., Bodirsky, B.L., Lassaletta, L., de Vries, W., et al. 2018. “Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits.” Nature 562 (7728): 519. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0594-0.
 

Principle 2: Enhance carbon stocks

 
Phong L.T., de Boer, I.J.M. & Udo, H.M.J. 2011. “Life cycle analysis of food production in integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems of the Mekong Delta.” Livestock Science 139: 80–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.03.015
Garnett, T., Godde, C., Muller, A., Roos, E., Smith, P., de Boer, I., zu Ermgassen, E., et al. 2017. “Grazed and confused.” Food Climate Research Network, Oxford. https://fcrn.org.uk/sites/default/files/project-files/fcrn_gnc_report.pdf
FAO. 2016. The state of food and agriculture 2016. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/publications/sofa/2016/en/.
Henderson, B.B., Gerber, P. J., Hilinski, T. E., Falcucci, A., Ojima, D. S., Salvatore, M., & Conant, R. T. 2015. “Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of the world’s grazing lands: Modeling soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes of mitigation practices.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 207: 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.03.029
Herrero, M., Henderson, B., Havlik, P., Thornton, P. K., Coonant, R. T., Smith, P., Wirsenius, S., Hristov, A.N., Gerber, P., Gill, M., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Valin, H., Garnett, T. & Stehfest, E. 2016. “Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector.” Nature Climate Change 6: 452–461. https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate2925
IPCC. 2014. “Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles.” Climate Change 2013 — the physical science basis: Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.015.
 

Principle 3: Increase productivity at animal and herd levels

 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2013. “Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in livestock production: A review of technical options for non-CO2 emissions.” FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/i3288e/i3288e00.htm.
Smith, P., Martino, D., Cai, Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P., McCarl, B., et al. 2008. “Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363 (1492): 789–813. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2184.
FAO. 2012. “Balanced feeding for improving livestock productivity — increase in milk production and nutrient use efficiency and decrease in methane emission.” FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/i3014e/i3014e00.htm.
Crowe, M.A., Hostens, M. & Opsomer, G. 2018. “Reproductive management in dairy cows — the future.” Irish Veterinary Journal 71. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13620-017-0112-y.
International Atomic Energy Agency. 2007. “Improving the reproductive management of dairy cattle subjected to artificial insemination.” TECDOC Series 1533. Vienna. https://www.iaea.org/publications/7487/improving-the-reproductive-management-of-dairy-cattle-subjected-to-artificial-insemination.
Udo. H.M.J., Aklilu, H.A., Phong, L.T., Bosma, R.H., Budisatria, I.G.S., Patil, B.R., Samdup, T. & Bebe, B.O. 2011. “Impact of intensification of different types of livestock production in smallholder crop-livestock systems.” Livestock Science 139: 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.03.020
Alcock, D. J. & Hegarty, R. S. 2011. “Potential effects of animal management and genetic improvement on enteric methane emissions, emissions intensity and productivity of sheep enterprises at Cowra, Australia.” Animal Feed Science and Technology. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201400016718.
Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvray, J. & Common, M. 2003. Natural Resource and Environmental Economics. 3rd edition. Pearson, Harlow.

 

Principle 4: Source feed sustainably

 
Eisler, M.C., Lee, M.R.F., Tarlton, J.F., Martin, G.B., Beddington, J., Dungait, J.A.J., Greathead, H., et al. 2014. “Agriculture: Steps to sustainable livestock.” Nature News 507 (7490): 32. https://doi.org/10.1038/507032a.
Galloway, J.N., Burke, M., Bradford, G. E., Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Chapagain, A.K., Gaskell, J.C.,  et al. 2007. “International trade in meat: The tip of the pork chop.” Ambio 36 (8): 622–629. https://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Galloway-et-al-2007.pdf
Lathuillière, M.J., Johnson, M.S., Galford, G.L. & Couto, E.G. 2014. “Environmental footprints show China and Europe’s evolving resource appropriation for soybean production in Mato Grosso, Brazil.” Environmental Research Letters 9 (7): 074001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/074001.
Mottet, A., de Haan, C., Falcucci, A., Tempio, G., Opio, C. & Gerber, P. 2017. “Livestock: On our plates or eating at our table? A new analysis of the feed/food debate.” Global Food Security, Food Security Governance in Latin America 14: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.001.
Van Zanten, H.H.E., Mollenhorst, H., Klootwijk, C.W., van Middelaar, C.E. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2016. “Global food supply: Land use efficiency of livestock systems.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21: 747–758. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11367-015-0944-1
Peden, D., Tadesse, G. & Misra, A.K. 2007.” Water and livestock for human development.” In: Water for food, water for life: A comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. Ed. D. Molden. Earthscan, London, and the International Water Management Institute, Colombo: 485–514. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/2154
De Fraiture, C., Wichelns, D., Rockstro¨m, J., Kemp-Benedict, E., 2007. “Looking ahead to 2050: Scenarios of alternative investment approaches.” In: Water for food, water for life: A comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. Ed. D. Molden. Earthscan, London, and International Water Management Institute, Colombo. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/36869

 

Principle 5: Couple livestock to land

 
Smaling, E.M.A., Stoorvogel, J.J. & de Jager, A.G. 2002. “Decision making on integrated nutrient management through the eyes of the scientist, the land-user and the policy maker.” Integrated Plant Nutrient Management in Sub-Saharan Africa. CAB International. http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/123052
Naylor, R., Steinfeld, H., Falcon, W., Galloway, J. Smil, V., Bradford, E., Alder, J. & Mooney, H. 2005. “Losing the links between livestock and land.” Science 310 (5754): 1621–1622. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1117856.
Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P. J., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M., & de Haan, C. 2006. “Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options.” FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/a0701e/a0701e00.htm
Ouyang, W., Hao F., Wei, X. & Huang, H. 2013. “Spatial and temporal trend of Chinese manure nutrient pollution and assimilation capacity of cropland and grassland.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20 (7): 5036–5046. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1481-8.
Goulding, K., Jarvis, S. & Whitmore, A. 2008. “Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363 (1491): 667–680. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2177.
Teenstra, E.D., Vellinga, T.V., Aktasaeng, N., Amatayaku, W., Ndambi, A. Pelster, D., Germer, L., Jenet, A.,  Opio, C. & Andeweg, K. 2014. “Global assessment of manure management policies and practices.” Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen. https://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/485932.
Chambers, B., Nicholson, N. & Smith, K. 2001. “Making better use of livestock manures on arable land.” Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research. http://www.nutrientmanagement.org/managing-livestock-manures-1--making-better-use-o/.
Gomez, I. & Thivant, L. 2015. Training manual for organic agriculture. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/nr/sustainability_pathways/docs/Compilation_techniques_organic_agriculture_rev.pdf.
Roman, P., Martinez, M.M. & Pantoja, A. 2015. Farmer´s compost handbook: Experiences in Latin America. FAO, Santiago. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3388e.pdf.
Van Dijk, S., Reichhuber, A., Gallopin, F., Odhong’, C., Korte, A. & Mislimshoeva, B. 2018. “Lessons learned from biogas digesters.” World Bank.
SNV Netherlands. 2019. “Biogas.” http://www.snv.org/sector/energy/topic/biogas.
FAO. 2103. “Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in livestock production: A review of technical options for non-CO2 emissions.” Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/i3288e/i3288e00.htm.
Leenstra, F.R., Vellinga, T.V., Neijenhuis, F. & de Buisonje, F.E. 2014. “Manure: A valuable resource.” Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen. https://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/451354.

 

Principle 6: Minimize fossil fuel use

 

International Diary Federation and FAO. 2004. Guide to good dairy farming practice. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/Y5224E/Y5224E00.htm. http://www.fao.org/3/ba0027e/ba0027e00.pdf

 

Principle 7: Foster an enabling environment

 

Naylor, R., Steinfeld, H., Falcon, W., Galloway, J., Smil, V., Bradford, E., Alder, J. & Mooney, H. 2005 “Losing the links between livestock and land.” Science 310 (5754): 1621–1622. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1117856.
Eisler, M.C., Lee, M.R.F., Tarlton, J.F., Martin, G.B., Beddington, J., Dungait, J.A.J., Greathead, H., et al. 2014. “Agriculture: Steps to sustainable livestock.” Nature News 507 (7490): 32. https://doi.org/10.1038/507032a.
Peterson, E.W.F. 2009. A billion dollars a day: The economics and politics of agricultural subsidies. Wiley-Blackwell, London. https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/7945572
 

CONTEXTS 1-6

 

Context 1:  Grazing dry- pastoral (ruminants)

 

Oosting S.J., Udo, H.M.J. & Viets, T.C. 2014. “Development of livestock production in the tropics: Farm and farmers’ perspectives.” Animal 8: 1238–1248. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/animal/article/development-of-livestock-production-in-the-tropics-farm-and-farmers-perspectives/06EE306EA498B6ADDCFF61ECC613DFEC
Fraval, S., Hammond, J., Lannerstad, M., Oosting, S.J., Sayula, G., Teufel, N., Silvestri, S., Poole, E.J., Herrero, M. & van Wijk, M.T. 2018. “Livelihoods and food security in an urban linked, high potential region of Tanzania: Changes over a three-year period.” Agricultural Systems (160): 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017.10.013
Udo, H.M.J., Aklilu, H.A., Phong, L.T., Bosma, R.H., Budisatria, I.G.S., Patil, B.R., Samdup, T. & Bebe, B.O. 2011. “Impact of intensification of different types of livestock production in smallholder crop-livestock systems.” Livestock Science 139: 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.03.020Get
Oosting, S.J., Udo, H.M.J. & Viets, T.C. 2014. “Development of livestock production in the tropics: Farm and farmers’ perspectives.” Animal 8: 1238–1248. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24673769
Migose, S.A., Bebe, B.O., de Boer, I.J.M. & Oosting, S.J. 2018. “Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder farming systems in Kenya.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 50: 1417–1426. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29594962
Van der Lee, J., Klerkx, L., Bebe, B.O., Mengistu, A. & Oosting, S. 2018. “Intensification and upgrading dynamics in emerging dairy clusters in the East African highlands.” Sustainability 10: 4324. doi:10.3390/su10114324.https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/11/4324
Descheemaeker, K., Amede, T. & Haileslassie, A. 2010. “Improving water productivity in mixed crop–livestock farming systems of Sub-Saharan Africa.” Agricultural Water Management 97: 579–586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.11.012

 

Context 2:  Grazing temperate (ruminants)

 

Tamou, C., Ripoll-Bosch, R., de Boer, I.J.M. & Oosting, S.J. 2018. “Pastoralists in a changing environment: The competition for grazing land in and around the W Biosphere Reserve, Benin Republic.” Ambio 47: 340–354. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28936804
Ayantunde, A.A., de Leeuw, J., Turner, M.D. & Said, M. 2011. “Challenges of assessing the sustainability of (agro)-pastoral systems.” Livestock Science 139: 30–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.03.019
Reid, R.S., Thornton, P.K., McCrabb, G.J., Kruska, R.L., Atieno, F. & Jones, P.G. 2004. “Is it possible to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in pastoral ecosystems of the tropics?” Environment, Development and Sustainability 6: 91–109.  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:ENVI.0000003631.43271.6b
Adriansen, H.K. 2008. “Understanding pastoral mobility: The case of Senegalese Fulani.” The Geographical Journal 174: 207–222. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40205234?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents
Dahl, G. & Hjort, A. 1976. Having herds: Pastoral herd growth and household economy. Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, Stockholm. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1979.81.2.02a00670
Udo, H., Weiler, V., Modupeore, O., Viets, T.C. & Oosting, S.J. 2016. “Intensification to reduce the carbon footprint of smallholder milk production: Fact or fiction?” Outlook on Agriculture 45: 33–38. https://doi.org/10.5367/oa.2016.0229
 

Context 3:  Grazing sub-humid (ruminants)

 

FAO. 2018. The state of the world’s forests — forest pathways to sustainable development. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/policy-support/resources/resources-details/en/c/1144279/
Osinaga, N.A., Alvarez, C.R. & Taboada, M.A. 2018. “Effect of deforestation and subsequent land use management on soil carbon stocks in the South American Chaco.” Soil 4: 251–257. https://www.soil-journal.net/4/251/2018/soil-4-251-2018-discussion.html
Holmann, F., Rivas, L., Urbina, N., Giraldo, L., Guzman, S., Martinez, M., Rivera, B., Medina, A. & Ramírez, G. 2005. “The role of livestock in poverty alleviation: An analysis of Colombia.” Livestock Research for Rural Development 17 (1). https://www.lrrd.cipav.org.co/lrrd17/1/holm17011.htm
Murgueitio, E., Calle, Z., Uribe, F., Calle, A. & Solorio, B. 2011. “Native trees and shrubs for the productive rehabilitation of tropical cattle ranching lands.” Forest Ecology and Management 261: 1654–1663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.09.027
IPCC. 2000. Land use, land use change and forestry. Eds. R.T. Watson, I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, R.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo & D.J. Dokken. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://unfccc.int/topics/land-use/workstreams/land-use--land-use-change-and-forestry-lulucf
Van Langevelde, F., van de Vijver, C.A.D.M., Kumar, L., van de Koppel, J., de Ridder, N., van Andel, J., Skidmore, A.K., Hearne, J.W., Stroosnijder, L., Bond, W.J., Prins, H.H.T. & Rietkerk, M. 2003. “Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems.” Ecology 84: 337. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[0337:EOFAHO]2.0.CO;2
De Vries, M. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2010. “Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments.” Livestock Science 128: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.11.007
Van Zanten, H.H.E., Mollenhorst, H., Klootwijk, C.W., van Middelaar, C.E. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2016. “Global food supply: Land use efficiency of livestock systems.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21: 747–758. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11367-015-0944-1
 

Context 4:  Mixed-crop livestock, dry (ruminants)

 

Van Langevelde, F., van de Vijver, C.A.D.M., Kumar, L., van de Koppel, J., de Ridder, N., van Andel, J., Skidmore, A.K., Hearne, J.W., Stroosnijder, L., Bond, W.J., Prins, H.H.T. & Rietkerk, M. 2003. “Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems.” Ecology 84: 337. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[0337:EOFAHO]2.0.CO;2
De Vries, M. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2010. “Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments.” Livestock Science 128: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.11.007
Van Zanten, H.H.E., Mollenhorst, H., Klootwijk, C.W., van Middelaar, C.E. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2016. “Global food supply: Land use efficiency of livestock systems.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21: 747–758. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11367-015-0944-1

 

Context 5:  Mixed-crop livestock, humid (monogastrics)

 

Aklilu, H.A. 2007. Village poultry in Ethiopia. Socio-technical analysis and learning with farmers. PhD thesis Wageningen University, Wageningen. 178 pp. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/81579
Udo, H.M.J., Aklilu, H.A., Phong, L.T., Bosma, R.H., Budisatria, I.G.S., Patil, B.R., Samdup, T. & Bebe, B.O. 2011. “Impact of intensification of different types of livestock production in smallholder crop-livestock systems.” Livestock Science 139: 22–30. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S187114131100103X
Van Zanten, H.H.E., Mollenhorst, H., Klootwijk, C.W., van Middelaar, C.E. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2016. “Global food supply: Land use efficiency of livestock systems.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21: 747–758. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11367-015-0944-1
 

Context 6:  Intensive (monogastrics & ruminants)

 
Bosma, R.H., Nam, C.Q., Udo, H.M.J., Verreth, J.A.J. & Visser, L.E. 2006. “Farmers’ motives for agriculture diversification and its contribution to livelihoods in the Mekong Delta.” Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development 2: 49–66. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=PH2008001465
Oosting, S.J., Udo, H.M.J. & Viets, T.C. 2014. “Development of livestock production in the tropics: Farm and farmers’ perspectives.” Animal 8: 1238–1248. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24673769
Phong, L.T., de Boer, I.J.M. & Udo, H.M.J. 2011. “Life cycle analysis of food production in integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems of the Mekomg Delta.” Livestock Science 139: 80–90. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1871141311000989
Van Zanten, H.H.E., Mollenhorst, H., Klootwijk, C.W., van Middelaar, C.E. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2016. “Global food supply: Land use efficiency of livestock systems.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21: 747–758. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11367-015-0944-1
 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

 
De Vries, M. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2010. “Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments.” Livestock Science 128: 1–11. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1871141309003692
Gerber, P.J., Steinfeld, H., Henderson, B., Mottet, A., Opio, C., Dijkman, J., Falcucci, A. & Tempio, G. 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock – a global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/i3437e/i3437e00.htm
Herrero, M., Wirsenius, S., Henderson, B., Rigolot, C., Thornton, P., Havlik, P., de Boer, I. & Gerber, P. 2015. “Livestock and the environment: What have we learned in the past decade.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 40: 177–202. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-environ-031113-093503
IPCC. 2000. Land use, land use change and forestry. Eds. R.T. Watson, I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, R.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo & D.J. Dokken. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://unfccc.int/topics/land-use/workstreams/land-use--land-use-change-and-forestry-lulucf
Kebebe, E.G., Oosting, S.J., Haileslassie, A., Duncan, A.J. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2015. “Strategies for improving water use efficiency of livestock production in rain-fed systems.” Animal 9: 908–916. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25496957
Mottet, A., de Haan, C., Falcucci, A., Tempio, G., Opio, C. & Gerber, P. 2017. “Livestock: On our plates or eating at our table? A new analysis of the feed/food debate.” Global Food Security 14: 1–8. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912416300013
Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M. & de Haan, C. 2006. “Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options.” FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/a0701e/a0701e00.htm
Uwizeye, A., Gerber, P.J., Opio, C.I., Tempio, G., Mottet, A., Makkar, H.P., Falcucci, A., Steingfeld, H. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2019. In review. “Nitrogen flows in global pork supply chains and potential improvement from feeding swill to pigs.” Resources, Conservation and Recyclinghttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.03.032
Van Langevelde, F., van de Vijver, C.A.D.M., Kumar, L., van de Koppel, J., de Ridder, N., van Andel, J., Skidmore, A.K., Hearne, J.W., Stroosnijder, L., Bond, W.J., Prins, H.H.T. & Rietkerk, M. 2003. “Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems.” Ecology 84: 337–350. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[0337:EOFAHO]2.0.CO;2
Van Zanten, H.H.E., Mollenhorst, H., Klootwijk, C.W., van Middelaar, C.E. & de Boer, I.J.M. 2016. “Global food supply: Land use efficiency of livestock systems.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21: 747–758. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11367-015-0944-1